grammar index        exercises       home        


(from THOMSON AND   MARTINET    A Practical English Grammar.


Purpose is expressed in final claues

1. through an infinitive with TO:

ex: I've come this far TO SEE you play.


2. with SO AS  or IN ORDER TO

    2.1. SO AS NOT TO very frequently with negative clauses.

    ex: He spoke quietly SO AS NOT TO wake the baby.

    2.2. IN ORDER TO to refer the infinitive to the subject:

    ex: He took off his shoes and socks in order to walk comfortably on the           wooden     floor.


3.FOR +______ING form

expresses the purpose of a thing:

ex: A lawn mower is a machine to cut the grass of your garden

  ex: Modern cars come with an estabililty system so that drivers will feel safer.  
  CAN/COULD        these forms are used whenever the person referred to is mentioned
  ex: We brought a second pair of socks so that the children could change after playing.  
  MAY/MIGHT (+ formal)  
  ex: We made a copy of all the papers so that the judge might keep them  
  note that this form is also possible when another subject is implied but the tenses are more restrictive.

ex: I explained that a couple of times in order that everybody might understand it perfectly

6. IN CASE + SUBJECT + VERB means "por si" in Spanish"
  6.1 present tense + in case + present tense/should + infinitive  
  ex: I always take the umbrella in case it rains

                                                        it should rain

  6.2 past tense + in case + past tense or should  
  ex: I took the umbrella in case it should rain/rained